The 4th Texas was one of three Texas regiments sent to Gen. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia. The regiment started enlistment in April of 1861 in Hays County, originally signing up for a year's service. Once the war started only companies that signed for the duration of the war were accepted. In September of 1861, in Viriginia, 10 of the Texas companies were organized into the 4th Regiment.
The 4th Texas Regiment had a reputation as being some of the hardest fighters in the Army of Northern Virginia. Though the regiment had over 1,300 soldiers who served during the war, at surrender they numbered only 15 officers and 143 men.